VMware Hands-on Labs - HOL-2101-01-CMP


Lab Overview - HOL-2101-01-CMP - What's New in vRealize Operations 8.1

Lab Guidance


Note: It may take more than 90 minutes to complete this lab. You should expect to only finish 2-3 of the modules during your time. The modules are independent of each other so you can start at the beginning of any module and proceed from there. You can use the Table of Contents to access any module of your choosing.

The Table of Contents can be accessed in the upper right-hand corner of the Lab Manual.

In this lab, we will be reviewing the major new features that are available in vRealize Operations 8.1.

Lab Module List:

Lab Captains:

Veronica Campos-Stover, Sr. Technical Account Manager, USA

Ian Smith, Sr. Cloud Management Specialist SE, USA

 

This lab manual can be downloaded from the Hands-on Labs Document site found here:

http://docs.hol.vmware.com

This lab may be available in other languages.  To set your language preference and have a localized manual deployed with your lab, you may utilize this document to help guide you through the process:

http://docs.hol.vmware.com/announcements/nee-default-language.pdf


 

Location of the Main Console

 

  1. The area in the RED box contains the Main Console. The Lab Manual is on the tab to the Right of the Main Console.
  2. A particular lab may have additional consoles found on separate tabs in the upper left. You will be directed to open another specific console if needed.
  3. Your lab starts with 90 minutes on the timer. The lab can not be saved. All your work must be done during the lab session. But you can click EXTEND to increase your time. If you are at a VMware event, you can extend your lab time twice, for up to 30 minutes. Each click gives you an additional 15 minutes. Outside of VMware events, you can extend your lab time up to 9 hours and 30 minutes. Each click gives you an additional hour.

 

 

Alternate Methods of Keyboard Data Entry

During this module, you will input text into the Main Console. Besides directly typing it in, there are two very helpful methods of entering data which make it easier to enter complex data.

 

 

Click and Drag Lab Manual Content Into Console Active Window

You can also click and drag text and Command Line Interface (CLI) commands directly from the Lab Manual into the active window in the Main Console.  

 

 

Accessing the Online International Keyboard

 

You can also use the Online International Keyboard found in the Main Console.

  1. Click on the Keyboard Icon found on the Windows Quick Launch Task Bar

 

 

Click once in active console window

 

In this example, you will use the Online Keyboard to enter the "@" sign used in email addresses. The "@" sign is Shift-2 on US keyboard layouts.

  1. Click once in the active console window
  2. Click on the Shift key

 

 

Click on the @ key

 

  1. Click on the "@ key"

Notice the @ sign entered in the active console window.

 

 

Activation Prompt or Watermark

 

When you first start your lab, you may notice a watermark on the desktop indicating that Windows is not activated.  

One of the major benefits of virtualization is that virtual machines can be moved and run on any platform. The Hands-on Labs utilizes this benefit and we are able to run the labs out of multiple datacenters. However, these datacenters may not have identical processors, which triggers a Microsoft activation check through the Internet.

Rest assured, VMware and the Hands-on Labs are in full compliance with Microsoft licensing requirements. The lab that you are using is a self-contained pod and does not have full access to the Internet, which is required for Windows to verify the activation. Without full access to the Internet, this automated process fails and you see this watermark.

This cosmetic issue has no effect on your lab.  

 

 

Look at the lower right portion of the screen

 

Please check to see that your lab is finished all the startup routines and is ready for you to start. If you see anything other than "Ready", please wait a few minutes. If after 5 minutes your lab has not changed to "Ready", please ask for assistance.

 

Module 1 - Container Operations - Supporting vSphere with Tanzu (30 minutes)

Introduction


New with vRealize Operations 8.1 is the capability to discover and monitor vSphere with Tanzu. We can auto-discover new constructs of Supervisor Clusters, vSphere Pods, Namespaces, and Tanzu Kubernetes clusters as we on-board them in vCenter Server using Workload Management. vRealize Operations 8.1 includes new summary pages to monitor the performance, capacity, utilization, and configuration of the Kubernetes clusters running on vSphere 7.0. Capacity forecasting will show bottlenecks for Supervisor Clusters and vSphere Pods. Out-of-the-box dashboards, reports, views, and alerts are available to operationalize the whole workload platform with complete visibility and control.

In addition, if DevOps engineers decide to deploy a different Kubernetes stack on guest clusters, the Container Management Pack can be used to monitor any other flavor of Kubernetes, providing the ability to visualize the cluster topology, correlate the virtual infrastructure and the Kubernetes infrastructure, as well as providing Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), dashboards and alerts.

In this module, we will see how an administrator can troubleshoot, manage capacity, manage drift, and reduce risk for Supervisor Clusters, vSphere Pods, Namespaces, and Tanzu Kubernetes clusters.


Log in to the vRealize Operations HVM Instance


This lab environment is running two different instances of vRealize Operations. We have the different vRealize Operations instances in order to be able to work through different use cases that have unique requirements. The lab instances are as follows:

In this lesson, we will be using the HVM instance of vRealize Operations.

If you are already logged into the HVM (not live) instance of vRealize Operations, click here to skip ahead.


 

Open the Chrome Browser from Windows Quick Launch Task Bar

 

If the browser is not already open, launch Google Chrome.

  1. Click the Chrome icon on the Windows Quick Launch Task Bar

 

The browser home page has links to the different instances of vRealize Operations that are running in the lab.

  1. Click the vrops-HVM link on the toolbar, to open the vRealize Operations user interface

 

 

Log in to vRealize Operations

 

The user and password information should already be filled in. However, if needed, type them in.

username: admin

password: VMware1!

  1. Click LOG IN

 

Kubernetes Constructs in vRealize Operations 8.1


vRealize Operations discovers the following workload management objects and their child objects using the vCenter Server adapter:

A cluster with Kubernetes enabled, running on vSphere, is called a Supervisor Cluster. In the vRealize Operations inventory, the summary tab of the Supervisor Cluster indicates that it has workload management enabled. The Supervisor Cluster contains specific objects that enable the capability to run Kubernetes workloads within ESXi. vRealize Operations collects metrics and data for the Supervisor Clusters. Supervisor Clusters contain Namespaces, which are resource pools that have dedicated memory, CPU, and storage.

Namespaces contain virtual machines with Kubernetes enabled. They are called Kubernetes control virtual machines. These virtual machines are managed by vSphere. Therefore, we cannot take action on these virtual machines from within vRealize Operations.

DevOps engineers can run workloads on containers running inside vSphere Pods. They can create Tanzu Kubernetes clusters inside a Namespace. A vSphere Pod is a virtual machine with a small footprint that runs one or more Linux containers. It is the equivalent of a Kubernetes pod. A Tanzu Kubernetes cluster is a full distribution of the open-source Kubernetes container orchestration software that is packaged, signed, and supported by VMware.


 

Workload Management Enabled Cluster Summary Tab

 

Let's start by visualizing the Kubernetes cluster running on vSphere.

  1. Click Environment
  2. Under vSphere Environment, click vSphere Hosts and Clusters

 

 

Workload Management Enabled Cluster Summary Tab, continuation

 

We will see the Summary Tab of the selected compute-cluster object.

  1. Expand vSphere World - Make sure to click the ">" symbol
  2. Expand vSphere 7 with Kubernetes - Make sure to click the ">" symbol
  3. Expand the WCP_DC datacenter - Make sure to click the ">" symbol
  4. Select the compute-cluster

 

 

Summary Tab

 

Below are the main options the Summary tab shows. We can see from a single pane of glass the status of the Kubernetes cluster and quickly identify if there are any issues. We can click on each option or metric to see the expanded chart.

  1. Object Summary - This widget displays the details of the selected object. The widget also displays the number of resources associated with the selected object and whether the Workload Management is enabled or disabled.
  2. Time Remaining - This widget displays the number of days remaining until the projected resource utilization crosses the threshold for the usable capacity.
  3. Capacity Remaining - This widget displays the unused capacity of the virtual environment to accommodate new virtual machines.
  4. Virtual Machine Remaining - The virtual machine remaining number is based on the average profile. The virtual machine remaining numbers are calculated when one or more custom profiles are enabled from the policy. The overall virtual machine remaining is based on the most constrained profile.
  5. Utilization - This widget is used to find out the trends in capacity used of the cluster against the total capacity available. The trend chart is displayed by clicking on any of the key indicators in BLUE. We can quickly identify how utilized the Kubernetes cluster is by looking at the key utilization indicators.
  6. Performance - This widget displays the summary metrics about the overall performance of the object. It displays the latest value and a trend line of the various key performance indicators in a color that indicates its health based on the symptom associated with the metrics. The trend chart is displayed by clicking on any of the key indicators in BLUE. We can quickly identify how the Kubernetes cluster is performing by looking at the key performance indicators.

 

 

Namespaces Status

 

The Workload Management Enabled cluster is a cluster with Kubernetes enabled, running on vSphere (also called Supervisor Cluster). It hosts a type of a resource pool called Namespaces. The Workload Management Enabled Cluster Summary tab provides an overview of the state of the selected cluster.

  1. Scroll down to the bottom of the page to visualize the state of the Namespaces (2)

We can see the Namespaces configuration status (3), the current version (4), and the Kubernetes status (5), in this case, indicating an ERROR. We can safely ignore this error for this exercise. In a Production environment, we would want to investigate why Kubernetes Status is showing an error.

 

 

Viewing Other Kubernetes Objects

 

Another way to view other Kubernetes objects is by clicking the symbol left to vSphere Hosts and Clusters in the left panel.

  1. Click the double arrow symbol to the left of vSphere Hosts and Clusters as shown

 

 

 

The Related Objects view allows us to quickly find related Kubernetes constructs in the environment.

 

 

Viewing Kubernetes Constructs

 

We will now expand the Related Objects to view the existing Kubernetes constructs in the environment.

  1. Click Tanzu Kubernetes cluster to expand and view the related objects to this construct
  2. Click Pod to expand and view the related objects to this construct
  3. Click Namespace to expand and view the related objects to this construct

 

 

Select Kubernetes Construct

 

We will take a look at the Pod helloworld-2.

  1. Under Pod, click helloworld-2. This action will take us to the Summary tab of this object.

 

 

vSphere Pod Summary Tab

 

We are already familiar with the Summary tab. In this exercise, we can browse the different options and metrics to become familiar with the state of this Pod. We see the key Utilization (1) and Performance (2) indicators change according to the type of object we select.

 

 

Capacity Management for Supervisor Clusters and vSphere Pods

 

  1. Click the Capacity tab

 

 

Viewing Capacity Remaining

 

  1. Click Capacity Remaining

vRealize Operations provides capacity management capabilities for Kubernetes constructs, just as we have for the traditional vSphere infrastructure. We can see both Time Remaining (2) and Capacity Remaining (3) projections for Supervisor Clusters and vSphere Pods.

In this case, we see the most constrained resource in this Pod is Memory (4).

 

Workload Management Inventory Dashboard


The Workload Management Inventory dashboard curates and displays the Kubernetes inventory across all the Workload Management enabled vSphere environments. This includes an end-to-end topology map showcasing the health of all the objects along with upstream and downstream dependencies. Upon clicking any object in the relationship tree, the related inventory of Supervisor Clusters, Namespaces, Pods, Developer Managed virtual machines, and Tanzu Kubernetes clusters can be viewed and exported from this dashboard.


 

Where is the Workload Management Inventory Dashboard Located

 

  1. Click Dashboards
  2. Expand DASHBOARDS
  3. Hover over Inventory
  4. Select Workload Management Inventory

 

 

How to Use the Workload Management Inventory Dashboard

 

We can use the dashboard widgets in several ways:

  1. Environment Summary: Provides a summary of the supervisor cluster and the child objects
  2. Relationships: An interactive canvas where we can view the relationship between the different objects in the workload management inventory
  3. Properties: View the current capacity of the Kubernetes clusters
  4. Metrics: View key utilization and performance indicators of the Kubernetes clusters
  5. Scroll down to the bottom of the page to see additional widgets

 

 

Additional Widgets

 

We can use the dashboard widgets in several ways:

  1. Supervisor Clusters: View the supervisor cluster functionality
  2. Namespaces: View the current configuration
  3. Tanzu Kubernetes clusters: View the Tanzu Kubernetes cluster functionality
  4. Developer Managed Virtual Machines: View the virtual machines that belong to the object
  5. Pods: View information about vSphere Pods

We can browse the different options and metrics to become familiar with the state of the Kubernetes constructs.

 

Workload Management Configuration Dashboard


The Workload Management Configuration Dashboard provides a quick configuration summary of all the key objects associated with workload management, such as Supervisor Clusters, Namespaces, vSphere Pods and Tanzu Kubernetes clusters. It is essential that the configuration is consistent across all the objects. Any configuration drift may result in inconsistent performance or availability of the applications leveraging workload management Kubernetes constructs. We will explore how to use this dashboard to see the configuration of Kubernetes constructs.


 

Where is the Workload Management Configuration Dashboard Located

 

  1. Click Dashboards
  2. Expand DASHBOARDS
  3. Hover over Configuration & Compliance
  4. Select Workload Management Configuration

 

 

How to Use the Workload Management Configuration Dashboard

 

We can view the following widgets in the dashboard.

  1. Environment Summary
  2. Supervisor Cluster Version(s)
  3. Supervisor Cluster Configuration Status
  4. Supervisor Cluster Kubernetes Status
  5. Namespace Config Status
  6. Pod Data: Tools Version, Tools Status, vCPU Distribution, Memory Distribution
  7. Scroll down to the bottom of the page to see additional widgets

 

 

Additional Widgets

 

We can view the following widgets in the dashboard.

  1. Supervisor Cluster Configuration Summary
  2. Namespace Configuration Summary
  3. Pod Configuration Summary
  4. Tanzu Kubernetes cluster Configuration Summary

We use this dashboard to ensure that the configuration is consistent across all objects. This helps reduce risk related to outdated or incompatible versions and configurations. For example, we can check in the VMware Tools or the VMware Hardware Versions if the Pods are running the same version.

We can browse the different options and click on the charts to become familiar with the configuration of the Kubernetes constructs.

 

Workload Management Reports


vRealize Operations 8.1 includes nine new reports for capacity, configuration and inventory of vSphere Pods, Supervisor Clusters, Tanzu Kubernetes clusters, and Namespaces.


 

Where Workload Management Reports are Located

 

  1. Click Dashboards
  2. Click Reports

 

 

vSphere Pods Reports

 

  1. Click Report Templates
  2. In Quick filter (Name) on the upper right corner, to the right of All Filters, enter Pods to filter within the available Report Templates and press Enter

 

 

Filter Results

 

We see the available reports for Pods constructs (1). We also see the Description (2) of the information each report provides, and the type of objects this report will include.

  1. Click "X" to the left of All Filters to clear this filter

 

 

Supervisor Cluster Reports

 

  1. Click Report Templates
  2. In Quick filter (Name) on the upper right corner, to the right of All Filters, enter Supervisor to filter within the available Report Templates and press Enter

 

 

Filter Results

 

We see the available reports for Supervisor Clusters constructs (1). We also see the Description (2) of the information each report provides, and the type of objects this report will include.

  1. Click "X" to the left of All Filters to clear this filter

 

 

Tanzu Kubernetes clusters Reports

 

  1. Click Report Templates
  2. In Quick filter (Name) on the upper right corner, to the right of All Filters, enter Tanzu to filter within the available Report Templates and press Enter

 

 

Filter Results

 

We see the available reports for Tanzu Kubernetes clusters constructs (1). We also see the Description (2) of the information each report provides, and the type of objects this report will include.

  1. Click "X" to the left of All Filters to clear this filter

 

 

Namespaces Reports

 

  1. Click Report Templates
  2. In Quick filter (Name) on the upper right corner, to the right of All Filters, enter Namespaces to filter within the available Report Templates and press Enter

 

 

Filter Results

 

We see the available reports for Namespaces constructs (1). We also see the Description (2) of the information each report provides, and the type of objects this report will include.

  1. Click "X" to the left of All Filters to clear this filter

 

 

Running a Workload Management Report

 

In this exercise, we will run a report to identify existing vSphere Pods in the compute-cluster. We will filter again on vSphere Pods reports.

  1. Click Report Templates
  2. In Quick filter (Name) on the upper right corner, to the right of All Filters, enter Pods to filter within the available Report Templates and press Enter

 

 

Inventory Report - Pods

 

  1. Select Inventory Report - Pods
  2. Click the vertical ellipsis symbol

 

 

Inventory Reports - Pods, continuation

 

  1. Click Run

 

 

Select an Object

 

  1. Expand vCenter Adapter
  2. Expand Cluster Compute Resource
  3. Scroll down the screen until we see compute-cluster

 

 

Select an Object, continuation

 

  1. Select compute-cluster
  2. Click OK

The report  will be generated in the background. It will take a couple of minutes to generate the report.

 

 

Saving the Report

 

  1. Click Generated Reports. We will see the report Inventory Report - Pods.
  2. Click the "PDF" symbol under Download

 

 

Saving the Report, continuation

 

  1. Click Save to save the report in the default location

 

 

Viewing the Report

 

  1. Click the PDF file from the browser to open the report

 

 

Viewing the Report, continuation

 

 

The report collects the Pod basic inventory from the selected cluster.

 

vSphere Pods Alerts


vRealize Operations 8.1 includes eighteen new alerts for vSphere Pods for notification of performance issues with storage and compute, as well as of availability and capacity problems.


 

Where are the vSphere Pods Alerts Located

 

Now, we will go to the vRealize Operations Alerts tab.

  1. Click Alerts
  2. Click Alert Definitions under Configuration on the left panel

 

 

Alert Definitions

 

  1. In Quick filter on the upper right corner, to the right of All Filters, enter Pod to filter within the available Alert Definitions and press Enter

 

 

vSphere Pods Alerts

 

The vCenter adapter provides alert definitions that generate alerts on the vSphere Pod objects in the environment. We can see how the alert definitions indicate the criticality, and if the alert is impacting the Health of an object, or if the alert indicates a Risk. Alert definitions have impact and criticality information:

  1. Criticality - Symptom-based
  2. Impact - Risk/Health

In this exercise, we will take a look at the configuration of the Pod has memory contention due to memory compression, ballooning, or swapping alert to see the built-in intelligence of vRealize Operations out-of-the-box alerts. We see this is a Performance alert, impacting the Health of a Virtualization/Hypervisor object.

  1. Select Pod has memory contention due to memory compression, ballooning, or swapping alert
  2. Click Pod has memory contention due to memory compression, ballooning, or swapping to view the definition of this alert

 

 

Viewing the Alert Definition

 

We see the Criticality (1) of this alert is based on the configured Symptoms (2). This alert is comprised of nine symptoms.

This alert is configured with the negation of the symptom Pod memory limit is set (3); if the Pod is not configured with a limit, this symptom becomes true.

  1. Scroll down the screen to see the additional symptoms

 

 

Memory Contention Symptoms

 

The symptom set is met when any of the symptoms are true (1). We see this symptom set is configured with three Memory|Contention (2) symptoms. The configured symptoms also let us know the Critical (3), Immediate (4) or Warning (5) value ranges for each metric.

  1. Scroll down to see the additional symptoms

 

 

Memory Compressed, Balloon and Swapped Symptoms

 

We see this symptom set is configured with one Memory|Compressed (1) symptom, three Memory|Balloon (2) symptoms, and one Memory|Swapped (3) symptom; if any of these symptoms is triggered, the symptom set is met.

The alert is triggered when all of the symptom sets are true. This means that when the Pod does not have a limit configured, AND a Memory|Contention symptom has triggered, AND a Memory|Compressed/Memory|Balloon/Memory Swapped symptom has triggered, the Health of the Pod will show this alert.

vRealize Operations alerts take into consideration a combination of various factors that could be affecting the Health of an object. This helps administrators quickly identify the specific metric indicating where the performance issue is coming from, as opposed to relying only on high resource utilization metrics.

 

Conclusion


In this module, we have learned the following:


 

We have finished Module 1

 

Congratulations on completing the lab module.

If you are looking for additional general information on (vROPs) vRealize Operations 8.1, try one of these:

Proceed to any module below which interests you the most.

From here we can:

  1. Click to advance to the next page and continue with the next lab module
  2. Open the TABLE OF CONTENTS to jump to any other module or lesson in this lab manual
  3. Click END to exit this lab

 

Module 2 - Support for Virtual Volumes (30 minutes)

Introduction


Virtual Volumes is a new virtual machine disk management and integration framework that exposes virtual disks as the primary unit of data management for storage arrays. Virtual Volumes virtualize SAN and NAS devices by abstracting physical hardware resources into logical pools of capacity (represented as a Virtual Datastore in vSphere) that can be more flexibly consumed, and configured to span a portion of one or several storage arrays.

The Virtual Datastore defines capacity boundaries and access logic, as well as exposing a set of data services accessible to the virtual machines provisioned in the pool. Virtual Datastores are purely logical constructs that can be configured on the fly, when needed, without disruption and do not require formatting with a file system.

Virtual Volumes define a new virtual disk container (the Virtual Volume) that is independent of the underlying physical storage representation (LUN, file system, object, etc.). In other words, with Virtual Volumes, the virtual disk becomes the primary unit of data management at the array level. This turns the Virtual Datastore into a virtual machine centric pool of capacity. 

In this module, we will see how vRealize Operations supports Virtual Volumes constructs.


Log in to the vRealize Operations HVM Instance


This lab environment is running two different instances of vRealize Operations. We have the different vRealize Operations instances in order to be able to work through different use cases that have unique requirements. The lab instances are as follows:

In this lesson, we will be using the HVM instance of vRealize Operations.

If you are already logged into the HVM (not live) instance of vRealize Operations, click here to skip ahead.


 

Open the Chrome Browser from Windows Quick Launch Task Bar

 

If the browser is not already open, launch Google Chrome.

  1. Click the Chrome icon on the Windows Quick Launch Task Bar

 

The browser home page has links to the different instances of vRealize Operations that are running in the lab.

  1. Click the vrops-HVM link on the toolbar, to open the vRealize Operations user interface

 

 

Log in to vRealize Operations

 

The user and password information should already be filled in. However, if needed, type them in.

username: admin

password: VMware1!

  1. Click LOG IN

 

Virtual Volumes Constructs in vRealize Operations 8.1


Virtual Volumes is an integration and management framework that virtualizes SAN/NAS arrays, enabling a more efficient operational model that is optimized for virtualized environments and centered on the application instead of the infrastructure. Virtual Volumes simplifies operations through policy-driven automation that enables more agile storage consumption for virtual machines and dynamic adjustments in real time, when they are needed.

With Virtual Volumes, VMware offers a paradigm in which an individual virtual machine and its disks, rather than a LUN, becomes a unit of storage management for a storage system. Virtual Volumes encapsulate virtual disks and other virtual machine files, and natively store the files on the storage system.

Virtual Volumes are VMDK granular storage entities exported by storage arrays. Virtual Volumes are exported to the ESXi host through a small set of Protocol Endpoints (PE). Protocol Endpoints are part of the physical storage fabric, and they establish a data path from virtual machines to their respective Virtual Volumes on demand. Storage systems enable data services on Virtual Volumes.

Virtual Volumes can be grouped into logical entities called Storage Containers (SC) for management purposes. Virtual Volumes and Storage Containers (SC) form the virtual storage fabric. Protocol Endpoints (PE) are part of the physical storage fabric. 

In this module, we will focus on how vRealize Operations 8.1 discovers and monitors the performance, utilization, and capacity for Virtual Volumes. vRealize Operations provides support for Virtual Volumes datastores with key metrics and properties; and, it provides a new out-of-the-box summary page that helps administrators quickly see the capacity, performance, utilization, configuration, and active alerts for Virtual Volumes.


 

Visualizing Virtual Volumes

 

Let's start by visualizing Virtual Volumes in the environment.

  1. Click Environment
  2. Under vSphere Environment, click vSphere Storage
  3. Expand vSphere World - Make sure to click the ">" symbol
  4. Expand vVOLS vCenter - Make sure to click the ">" symbol
  5. Expand DC2 - Make sure to click the ">" symbol
  6. Select PS-vVols-x20

 

 

Summary Tab

 

The Virtual Volume Summary tab provides an overview of the state of the selected volume. The Summary tab displays the alerts and metrics as they affect the health, risk, or efficiency. We can use this tab to evaluate the impact that alerts are having on the volume and use the information to begin troubleshooting problems. We can click on each option or metric to see the expanded chart.

Below are the main options the Summary tab shows. We can see from a single pane of glass the status of the Virtual Volumes and quickly identify if there are any issues. We can click on each option or metric to see the expanded chart.

  1. Object Summary - This widget displays the details of the Virtual Volumes object. The widget also displays the number of resources associated with this object.
  2. Time Remaining - This widget displays the number of days remaining until the projected resource utilization crosses the threshold for the usable capacity
  3. Capacity Remaining - This widget displays the unused capacity of the Virtual Volumes to accommodate new virtual machines
  4. Utilization - This widget is used to find out the trends in capacity used of the Virtual Volumes as against the total capacity available. The trend chart is displayed by clicking on any of the key indicators in BLUE.
  5. Performance - This widget displays the summary metrics about the overall performance of the object
  6. Scroll down to the bottom of the page to see the Configuration and Metadata widgets

 

 

Additional Widgets

 

  1. Depending on the screen resolution, scroll down the screen to see the additional widgets. Expand SCSI Adapter under the Configuration widget.
  2. Configuration - This widget displays the SCSI adapter configuration details of the Virtual Volumes
  3. Metadata - This widget displays any associated metadata to the Virtual Volumes. In this case, the Virtual Volumes contain a vSphere Tag by default.

 

 

Capacity Management for Virtual Volumes

 

  1. Click Capacity Remaining

 

 

Viewing Capacity Remaining

 

vRealize Operations provides capacity management capabilities for Virtual Volumes, just as we have for the traditional vSphere VMFS datastores. We can see Time Remaining (1), Capacity Remaining (2), Disk Space Used % (3), and Disk Space Remaining % (4) projections for Virtual Volumes.

In this case, this Virtual Volume has 100% remaining disk space with the recommendation to decrease its size (see Recommended Size (5)), as historically, the used disk space has not been more than 10%.

 

 

Virtual Volumes Key Utilization and Performance Indicators

 

vRealize Operations 8.1 provides key utilization and performance metrics for Virtual Volumes objects. Let's take a look at how we can quickly view these metrics from the Summary tab.

  1. Click Summary

 

 

Utilization Metrics

 

vRealize Operations displays the following utilization metrics for Virtual Volumes objects:

  1. Datastore Read IOPS: This metric displays the average number of read commands issued per second during the collection interval.
    • We can use this metric when the total IOPS is higher than expected. We check if the metric is read or write dominated. This helps determine the cause of the high IOPS. Certain workloads such as backups, anti-virus scans, and Windows updates carry a Read/Write pattern. For example, an anti-virus scan is heavy on read since it is mostly reading the file system.
  2. Datastore Write IOPS: This metric displays the average number of write commands issued per second during the collection interval.
    • We can use this metric when the total IOPS is higher than expected. We can drill down to see if the metric is read or write dominated. This helps determine the cause of the high IOPS. An example of write intensive operations is a database storing images and video.
  3. Click on Datastore Write IOPS numeric metric to see the chart

 

 

Datastore Write IOPS chart

 

We see the Datastore|Write IOPS (1) metric from the last 6 hours. We can modify the time range directly from this chart if we need to.

 

 

Last 24 Hours Time Range

 

  1. Click the Calendar icon
  2. In Range, select Last 24 hours by clicking on the arrow
  3. Click GO

 

 

Results

 

We see the metric trend from the last 24 hours. The chart shows the lowest data point (1), and the highest data point (2).

  1. Click "X" to close the screen

 

 

Performance Metrics

 

vRealize Operations displays the following performance metrics for Virtual Volumes objects:

  1. Datastore Read Latency (ms) - Average amount of time for a read operation from the datastore. Total latency = kernel latency + device latency.
  2. Datastore Write Latency (ms) - Average amount of time for a write operation to the datastore. Total latency = kernel latency + device latency.
  3. Max VM Disk Latency - Maximum amount of time taken to read or write data from a virtual machine.
  4. Datastore Outstanding IO requests (OIOs) - This metric displays the outstanding datastore IO requests.

 

Conclusion


In this module, we have learned the following:


 

We have finished Module 2

 

Congratulations on completing the lab module.

If you are looking for additional general information on (vROPs) vRealize Operations 8.1, try one of these:

Proceed to any module below which interests you the most.

From here we can:

  1. Click to advance to the next page and continue with the next lab module
  2. Open the TABLE OF CONTENTS to jump to any other module or lesson in this lab manual
  3. Click END to exit this lab

 

Module 3 - Multi-Cloud Monitoring (30 minutes)

Introduction


vRealize Operations 8.1 provides native support for VMware Cloud on AWS (VMC). In this module, we will use VMC acronym for short. vRealize Operations discovers VMC Software Defined Datacenters (SDDCs) just like with the traditional vSphere infrastructure. In this module, we will use SDDCs acronym for short. We can extend the monitoring capabilities of the on-premises vRealize Operations to monitor the VMC vCenter Server by connecting it as an end point inside vRealize Operations.

VMC provides the infrastructure as a service. It uses the scale and flexibility of the public cloud, while providing private cloud like operating environment.

vRealize Operations 8.1 provides native support for VMware Cloud on AWS, and enhances multi-cloud monitoring by adding support for Google Cloud Platform (GCP), and updating Amazon Web Services (AWS) support.


Log in to the vRealize Operations HVM Instance


This lab environment is running two different instances of vRealize Operations. We have the different vRealize Operations instances in order to be able to work through different use cases that have unique requirements. The lab instances are as follows:

In this lesson, we will be using the HVM instance of vRealize Operations.

If you are already logged into the HVM (not live) instance of vRealize Operations, click here to skip ahead.


 

Open the Chrome Browser from Windows Quick Launch Task Bar

 

If the browser is not already open, launch Google Chrome.

  1. Click the Chrome icon on the Windows Quick Launch Task Bar

 

The browser home page has links to the different instances of vRealize Operations that are running in the lab.

  1. Click the vrops-HVM link on the toolbar, to open the vRealize Operations user interface

 

 

Log in to vRealize Operations

 

The user and password information should already be filled in. However, if needed, type them in.

username: admin

password: VMware1!

  1. Click LOG IN

 

VMware Cloud on AWS (VMC) in vRealize Operations 8.1


vRealize Operations 8.1 features new out-of-the-box dashboards for monitoring VMware Cloud on AWS (VMC). Once the VMC cloud account has been configured, we will see the new VMC specific dashboards, which include monitoring the management virtual machines.

These dashboards help administrators in different ways:


 

Where the VMware Cloud on AWS Dashboards are Located

 

The VMC dashboards allow us to track the capacity, cost, and inventory overviews of the SDDCs. We can also monitor virtual machines, the utilization, and performance of the SDDCs.

  1. Click Dashboards
  2. Expand DASHBOARDS
  3. Hover over VMware Cloud on AWS

We see the available dashboards (4):

 

 

VMC Capacity Dashboard

 

  1. Click Dashboards
  2. Expand DASHBOARDS
  3. Hover over VMware Cloud on AWS
  4. Click VMC Capacity

The VMC Capacity dashboard provides a capacity overview of each of the VMC SDDCs. We can easily drill down into the capacity of all the underlying components such as clusters, hosts, virtual machines, datastores, and vSAN disk groups.

 

 

How to Use the VMC Capacity Dashboard

 

The first three rows show us a card per VMC SDDC with three different dimensions:

  1. Capacity Remaining
  2. Time Remaining
  3. Virtual Machine Remaining

When we select one of the SDDC cards, the details of the SDDC are automatically populated in the widgets. In this case, there is only one VMC SDDC: VMC_vCenter_CMBU-TMM.

  1. Click on any of the VMC_vCenter_CMBU-TMM SDDC cards
  2. Scroll down the screen to see the additional widgets

 

 

Additional Widgets

 

Upon selecting the SDDC, we can see the clusters, hosts, virtual machines (both management and workload), datastores and disk groups.

The key performance indicators are color-coded to help identify capacity bottlenecks.

From a single pane of glass, we see the following widgets:

  1. Cluster capacity details
  2. Host capacity and utilization

In this exercise, we want to become familiar with the capacity metrics provided by these widgets so we can easily identify any ongoing issues.

  1. Scroll the bar to the right on the Cluster capacity details widget to see the additional metrics
  2. Scroll down the screen to see the last widgets in this dashboard

 

 

Additional Widgets, continuation

 

We see the following widgets:

  1. Datastore capacity and utilization
  2. Diskgroup capacity
  3. Virtual machine capacity

In this exercise, we want to become familiar with the capacity metrics provided by these widgets so we can easily identify any ongoing issues.

We are able to quickly identify virtual machines with 100% Memory Utilization (4) and 0% Capacity Remaining (5).

 

 

VMC Inventory Dashboard

 

  1. Click Dashboards
  2. Expand DASHBOARDS
  3. Hover over VMware Cloud on AWS
  4. Click VMC Inventory

We can use the VMC Inventory dashboard to view the inventory overview of all the SDDCs configured in VMC. The inventory includes:

 

 

How to Use the VMC Inventory Dashboard

 

The widget VMC SDDCs displays the SDDCs as cards showing the number of virtual machines running in the SDDC. The SDDC card also shows a trend of virtual machine growth over the past 30 days (1). If we are about to reach the limit of supported virtual machines in the SDDC, the SDDC card indicates this by changing colors.

When we select one of the SDDC cards, the lists of the vSphere Cluster Inventory (2), Datastore Inventory (3),  and vSphere Hosts Inventory (4) with key configuration details of the SDDC are populated in the widgets. In this case, there is only one VMC SDDC: VMC_vCenter_CMBU-TMM.

We can filter the list of vSphere hosts and virtual machines by selecting a vSphere cluster or list of virtual machines by selecting an ESXi host.

  1. Click the VMC_vCenter_CMBU-TMM SDDC card
  2. Scroll down the screen to see the additional widgets

 

 

Additional Widgets

 

We see the widget Virtual Machine Inventory. In this exercise, we want to become familiar with the inventory details provided by these widgets so we can easily identify any configuration drifts.

  1. Depending on the screen resolution, scroll the screen to the right to see the Hardware Version column. Click on Hardware Version on the Virtual Machine Inventory widget to sort the virtual machines.

We are able to quickly identify virtual machines still running an older Hardware Version (2).

 

 

Exporting Virtual Machine Inventory

 

We can choose to export the list in CSV format using the available options on the toolbar.

  1. Click the top of the Virtual Machine Inventory widget
  2. Click the "Eye" symbol for the toolbar to show
  3. Click the export symbol.

 

 

CSV File

 

The CSV file takes three to five seconds to generate.

  1. Click Write File to save the file. In this exercise, we only show the capability to save the file. Click Cancel.
  2. Click "X" to exit

We can generate a CSV file from any of the inventory widgets following the same procedure.

 

 

Selecting a Specific Time Range

 

We can also select the time range we want the inventory to show in the widget.

  1. From the toolbar, click the Calendar icon
  2. Select the required time range. We can specify a Relative Date Range, Specific Date Range, Absolute Date Range, or Dashboard Time.
  3. Click GO

 

 

VMC Management VM Monitoring

 

  1. Click Dashboards
  2. Expand DASHBOARDS
  3. Hover over VMware Cloud on AWS
  4. Click VMC Management VM Monitoring

We can use the VMC Management VM Monitoring dashboard to monitor the utilization and performance of the key management virtual machines running in the SDDC. This dashboard ensures that the management components (such as vCenter and NSX, including NSX-T) are not facing any resource bottlenecks from the CPU, memory, network, and storage perspectives.

In this exercise, we want to become familiar with the metrics provided by these widgets so we can easily identify problems with the management virtual machines.

 

 

How to Use the VMC Management VM Monitoring Dashboard

 

The first list of widgets provides all the management components in the SDDC showing CPU Usage & Performance (1), CPU Usage (MHz) per core (2), CPU Contention (3). Upon selecting a management virtual machine, we can see the usage and performance trends of all the CPU cores.

Management virtual machines include: vCenter Server, NSX-Edge and NSX Manager components.

  1. Scroll down the screen to see the additional widgets

 

 

Additional Widgets, Memory

 

The second list of widgets provides all the management components in the SDDC showing Memory Usage & Performance (1), Memory Usage % Trend (2), and Memory Contention % Trend (3). Upon selecting a management virtual machine, we can see the memory usage and performance trends.

  1. Scroll down the screen to see the additional widgets

 

 

Additional Widgets, Network

 

The third list of widgets provides all the management components in the SDDC showing Network Usage & Performance (1), Received Points per Second (PPS) Trend (2), Transmit Points Per Second (PPS) Trend (3), and Packets Dropped % Trend (4). Upon selecting a management virtual machine, we can see the network usage and performance trends.

  1. Scroll down to the bottom of the screen to see the last widgets in this dashboard

 

 

Additional Widgets, Storage

 

The fourth list of widget provides all the management components in the SDDC with Storage Usage & Performance (1), Disk Space Usage Trend (2), Disk IOPS trend (3), and Disk Throughput Trend (4). Upon selecting a management virtual machine, we can see the storage usage and performance trends.

 

 

VMC Utilization and Performance Dashboard

 

  1. Click Dashboards
  2. Expand DASHBOARDS
  3. Hover over VMware Cloud on AWS
  4. Click VMC Utilization and Performance

We can use the VMC Utilization and Performance dashboard to view the utilization and performance overview of the SDDC based on heavy hitter virtual machines and impacted virtual machines over the last 30 days. This dashboard helps us in finding the virtual machines in the environment that are negatively impacting the capacity or performance from a CPU, memory, storage, or network perspective.

 

 

How to Use the VMC Utilization and Performance Dashboard

 

The widget List of VMC SDDCs (1) displays the list of all the SDDCs with aggregate CPU, memory, and storage utilization with 95th percentile and maximum values over the last 30 days. In this case, there is only one VMC SDDC: VMC_vCenter_CMBU-TMM.

When we select the SDDC from the List of VMC SDDCs widget, we can see the list of the Top-25 virtual machines demanding CPU resources (2), and Memory resources (3) in the SDDC.

Each section in the dashboard is based on the last 30 days data with 95th percentile transformation which is configurable to Max, Average, Current, Standard Deviation, or other mathematical transformations.

The first list of widgets show the Top-25 virtual machines with high CPU and Memory demand.

  1. Scroll down the screen to see the additional widgets

 

 

Additional Widgets, CPU and Memory

 

The widgets show the Top-25 virtual machines that have been running with high CPU and Memory key performance indicators.

The most commonly used key performance indicators are:

  1. CPU Ready % - This metric indicates the percentage of time in which a virtual machine was waiting in line to use the CPU on the ESXi host. A large ready time for a virtual machine indicates that the virtual machine needed CPU resources but the infrastructure was busy serving other virtual machines. This might indicate that the host is trying to serve too many virtual machines. Whenever the CPU ready is larger than 10%, we should check if the host is overloaded, or if the virtual machine really needs all the resources that were allocated to it.
  2. CPU Co-stop % - This metric indicated the percentage of time the virtual machine is ready to run, but is unable to due to co-scheduling constraints.
  3. Memory Contention % - This metric shows the percentage of time virtual machines are waiting to access swapped memory. Use this metric to monitor the virtual machine memory swapping. A high value indicates that the virtual machine is running low on memory and a large amount of memory is being swapped.
  4. Scroll down the screen to see the additional widgets

 

 

Additional Widgets, Network and Storage

 

The first list of widgets show the Top-25 virtual machines with high Network Bandwidth (1), and Storage IO (2) demand.

The second list of widgets show the Top-25 virtual machines that have been running with high Network key performance indicators. In a production scenario, we would be interested in the virtual machines showing a high number of Network Packets Dropped (3).

  1. Scroll down to the bottom of the screen to see the last widgets in this dashboard

 

 

Additional Widgets, Storage

 

The widgets show the Top-25 virtual machines that have been running with high Storage Read Latency (1), Storage Write Latency (2), and Storage Outstanding IO (3) demand for the last 30 days.

 

Amazon Web Services (AWS) in vRealize Operations 8.1


The Management Pack for Amazon Web Services (AWS) is an embedded adapter with diagnostic dashboards for vRealize Operations. The adapter collects metrics from AWS.

In vRealize Operations 8.1, the management pack has been updated to support the following services:


 

Viewing Amazon Web Services Objects

 

  1. Click Environment
  2. Click All Objects. Depending on the screen resolution, scroll down the screen to see All Objects.

 

 

AWS Adapter

 

  1. Expand the AWS Adapter
  2. Scroll down the screen to see the additional objects

 

 

AWS Adapter, continuation

 

In this exercise, we want to become familiar with all the supported AWS services provided by the Management Pack.

 

 

Viewing an Object

 

In this exercise, we will take a look at an EC2 Auto Scaling Group.

  1. Expand EC2 Auto Scaling Group
  2. Select the vmw-k8s-K8sStack object

The Summary tab of this object shows the Object Relationship (3), stack information, and key performance indicators such as CPU Usage (4), Network Throughput (5), and Disk IOPS (6).

As we have seen, the Summary tab provides a single pane of glass to see the state, configuration, utilization, and performance of any selected object. vRealize Operations provides administrators an easy way to monitor and manage any on-premises or cloud object in the environment.

 

Google Cloud Platform (GCP) in vRealize Operations 8.1


vRealize Operations 8.1 adds support for Google Cloud Platform (GCP). The vRealize Operations Management Pack for GCP allows us to dive into the key performance indicators for the GCP environment. Each adapter instance of the Management Pack has diagnostic dashboards and collects metrics and properties from Google Cloud.

This Management Pack supports the following GCP products:


 

Viewing Google Cloud Platform Objects

 

  1. Click Environment
  2. Click All Objects. Depending on the screen resolution, scroll down the screen to see All Objects.

 

 

GCP Adapter

 

  1. Expand GCP Adapter

We see all the GCP objects and services supported by the Management Pack. In this exercise, we want to become familiar with all the supported GCP services provided by the Management Pack.

 

 

Google Cloud Platform Dashboards

 

The vRealize Operations Management Pack for GCP provides seven new built-in dashboards to monitor the supported services:

To access the dashboards, from the main menu of vRealize Operations we can perform the following actions:

  1. Click Dashboards
  2. Expand DASHBOARDS
  3. Hover over GCP
  4. Hover over GCP Services
  5. Click GCP Compute: CE

We will take a look at the GCP Compute: CE dashboard.

 

 

GCP Compute: CE Dashboard

 

 

  1. Click gcp-mp

The dashboard will show the existing CE Instances (2) with configuration information. The dashboard also shows the Instances by CPU Usage % (3), and the Instances by Network Usage (bytes) (4).

  1. Scroll down to the bottom of the screen to see the additional widgets

In this case, the widgets Longest running instances (1) and Instances by Disk IOPS (2) do not show any significant metrics as this is a demo environment.

 

 

Google Cloud Platform Alerts

 

The vRealize Operations Management Pack for GCP provides alerts to help simplify troubleshooting. We will locate these alerts by performing the following actions:

  1. Click Alerts
  2. Click Alert Definitions under Configuration on the left panel. We will see the Alert Definitions page.

 

 

Alert Definitions

 

  1. In Quick filter on the upper right corner of the Alert Definitions page, to the right of All Filters, enter GCP to filter within the available Alert Definitions and press Enter

 

 

GCP Alerts

 

These alerts are triggered when any of the monitoring resources in the Google Cloud Platform display an unexpected behavior. In this exercise, we want to simply become familiar with these alerts. We will not be drilling into any particular alert in this module.

 

Conclusion


In this module, we have learned the following:


 

We have finished Module 3

 

Congratulations on completing the lab module.

If you are looking for additional general information on (vROPs) vRealize Operations 8.1, try one of these:

Proceed to any module below which interests you the most.

From here we can:

  1. Click to advance to the next page and continue with the next lab module
  2. Open the TABLE OF CONTENTS to jump to any other module or lesson in this lab manual
  3. Click END to exit this lab

 

Conclusion

Thank you for participating in the VMware Hands-on Labs. Be sure to visit http://hol.vmware.com/ to continue your lab experience online.

Lab SKU: HOL-2101-01-CMP

Version: 20200818-174746