VMware Hands-on Labs - HOL-1851-06-ADV


Lab Overview - HOL-1851-06-ADV - Horizon 7 for Linux Hosted Desktops

Lab Guidance


Note: It will take more than 90 minutes to complete this lab. You will need to extend your time if you expect to finish all of the modules during your time.  In this lab, modules 2-5 are dependent on each other! (You can start on module 2, if you have limited time)

The Table of Contents can be accessed in the upper right-hand corner of the Lab Manual.

Lab Abstract:  In this lab you will learn how to Deliver, manage and access Linux virtual desktops with Horizon 7 for Linux.  You will configure a Linux desktop for use with Horizon including installing the Horizon Agent and joining an CentOS 7.2 desktop to Active Directory for single sign-on.

Lab Module List:

 Lab Captains:

 

This lab manual can be downloaded from the Hands-on Labs Document site found here:

http://docs.hol.vmware.com

This lab may be available in other languages.  To set your language preference and have a localized manual deployed with your lab, you may utilize this document to help guide you through the process:

http://docs.hol.vmware.com/announcements/nee-default-language.pdf


 

Location of the Main Console

 

  1. The area in the RED box contains the Main Console.  The Lab Manual is on the tab to the Right of the Main Console.
  2. A particular lab may have additional consoles found on separate tabs in the upper left. You will be directed to open another specific console if needed.
  3. Your lab starts with 90 minutes on the timer.  The lab can not be saved.  All your work must be done during the lab session.  But you can click the EXTEND to increase your time.  If you are at a VMware event, you can extend your lab time twice, for up to 30 minutes.  Each click gives you an additional 15 minutes.  Outside of VMware events, you can extend your lab time up to 9 hours and 30 minutes. Each click gives you an additional hour.

 

 

Alternate Methods of Keyboard Data Entry

During this module, you will input text into the Main Console. Besides directly typing it in, there are two very helpful methods of entering data which make it easier to enter complex data.

 

 

Click and Drag Lab Manual Content Into Console Active Window

You can also click and drag text and Command Line Interface (CLI) commands directly from the Lab Manual into the active window in the Main Console.  

 

 

Accessing the Online International Keyboard

 

You can also use the Online International Keyboard found in the Main Console.

  1. Click on the Keyboard Icon found on the Windows Quick Launch Task Bar.

 

 

Activation Prompt or Watermark

 

When you first start your lab, you may notice a watermark on the desktop indicating that Windows is not activated.  

One of the major benefits of virtualization is that virtual machines can be moved and run on any platform.  The Hands-on Labs utilizes this benefit and we are able to run the labs out of multiple datacenters.  However, these datacenters may not have identical processors, which triggers a Microsoft activation check through the Internet.

Rest assured, VMware and the Hands-on Labs are in full compliance with Microsoft licensing requirements.  The lab that you are using is a self-contained pod and does not have full access to the Internet, which is required for Windows to verify the activation.  Without full access to the Internet, this automated process fails and you see this watermark.

This cosmetic issue has no effect on your lab.  

 

 

Look at the lower right portion of the screen

 

Please check to see that your lab is finished all the start-up routines and is ready for you to start. If you see anything other than "Ready", please wait a few minutes.  If after 5 minutes your lab has not changed to "Ready", please ask for assistance.

 

Module 1 - Introduction to Horizon for Linux (30 minutes)

Introduction


This Module contains the following lessons:


Introduction to Linux Desktop



 

Horizon for Linux Overview

 

Why Linux Desktop's

In a predominantly Windows world, the use of Linux desktops is becoming more pervasive. Organizations rely on Linux for a variety of reasons:

However, supporting Linux desktops in a physical world comes with its own set of challenges. Linux desktops can be complex and cumbersome to manage. They offer little or no intellectual property protection especially when it comes to remote, outsourced, or offshored workers. And the endpoints required to run Linux typically are pricey and drive up costs. To overcome these challenges, many organizations have looked to desktop and application virtualization. But this solution has been largely reserved for Windows users. That is until now...

 

 

Horizon 7 for Linux

With Horizon 7 for Linux, organizations can now extend the benefits of desktop and application virtualization to Linux users.

 

 

What are the key use cases of Horizon 7 for Linux?

 

The use cases for using a Linux desktop can vary from educational labs to engineering development and Horizon can support those use cases.  The key use cases that VMware continues to see are:

 

 

Supported Distributions

 

Supported Linux Distribution Architecture
Ubuntu 12.04, 14.04 and 16.04
x64
RHEL 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.2 and 7.3
x64
CentOS 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.2, and 7.3
x64
NeoKylin 6 Update 1
x64
SLED 11 SP3/SP4, SLED 12 SP1/SP2
x64
SLES 12 SP1/SP2
x64

 

 

Requirements

 

 

Supported Features

 

Horizon 7 for Linux supports the following key features:  

 

 

Supported Horizon Clients and Devices

 

 

Horizon for Linux - Blast Extreme Protocol



 

What is Blast Extreme Protocol?

Note: Horizon for Linux only supports the Blast protocols.

 

 

VMware Blast Extreme Features

 

Key features of VMware Blast Extreme include the following:

  1. When the 3D feature is enabled, up to two monitors are supported with a resolution of up to 1920 x 1200, or one monitor with a resolution of 4K (3840 x 2160).
  1. If you have an add-in discrete GPU and an embedded GPU, the operating system might default to the embedded GPU. To fix this problem, you can disable or remove the device in Device Manager. If the problem persists, you can install the WDDM graphics driver for the embedded GPU, or disable the embedded GPU in the system BIOS. Refer to your system documentation on how disable the embedded GPU.

 

 

Blast Extreme Encoding and Decoding Technologies

 

Horizon for Linux Blast Extreme leverages H.264 and JPG/PNG codecs for the best user experience.

Depending on circumstances and configuration used, Blast Extreme uses either an H.264 codec or a JPG/PNG codec. A codec is a computer program that can encode or decode a digital data stream for transmission. The word codec is a blend of the words coder-decoder. By default, Blast Extreme uses the H.264 codec if the client device supports that codec.

 

 

Blast Extreme Security

 

Blast Extreme is secure out of the box and encrypted from Horizon Client to Virtual Desktops or Applications

 

 

Blast Extreme Network Adaptation

 

VMware Blast Extreme can compensate for an increase in latency or a reduction in bandwidth and can leverage both TCP and UDP network transports.

 

Conclusion


What you learned in this module:

You have learned that


 

Congratulations on completing Module 1

 

Please continue to the next module or scan the QR code to learn more.

Please continue to the next module or click a module below to review.

Lab Module List:

 

 

Module 2 - Linux Desktop Master Image (30 minutes)

Introduction


This Module contains the following lessons:


Linux Desktop Master Image Preparation


Horizon for Linux uses vCenter managed virtual machines.  The same concept that you use for Windows desktops applies to Linux for a master image.  The master image needs to be a supported distribution using the supported desktop environment listed below and must be able to communicate with Connection Server. You must configure networking on the Linux machine so that the Linux machine can ping the Connection Server instance using its FQDN (fully qualified domain name).

Open VMware Tools (OVT) are pre-installed on RHEL 7, CentOS 7, SLED 12, and SLES 12 machines.  If you are using an Ubuntu16.04 machine, install OVT on it

You should also customize the desktop environment to your use case.  In this lab, I utilized http://bit.ly/GnomeLogin to help customize the logon screen for Gnome.

 


 

Supported Linux Distributions

Supported Linux Distribution Architecture
Ubuntu 12.04, 14.04 and 16.04
x64
RHEL 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.2 and 7.3
x64
CentOS 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.2, and 7.3
x64
NeoKylin 6 Update 1
x64
SLED 11 SP3/SP4, SLED 12 SP1/SP2
x64
SLES 12 SP1/SP2
x64

 

 

HzLinux-01a Customizations

Several changes have been made to enhance the users experience during the Hands-On-Labs use of the HzLinux-01a desktop.

The login screen was modified to disable the user list, added a banner message and a logo as an example.

https://wiki.centos.org/TipsAndTricks/DisableGDMUserlist

All of the modifications can be found using Google to search for how to make the changes.

 

 

 

Power on the Linux VM

 

 

Login to HzLinux-01a Desktop

 

Login to the Linux Desktop

  1. Enter hol as the username
  2. Click Next

 

 

Configure Linux for Single Sign-On

The single-sign-on (SSO) feature allows end users to supply Active Directory login credentials only once.

If you do not use the single-sign-on feature, end users must log in twice. They are first prompted for Active Directory credentials to log in to Horizon Connection Server and then are prompted log in to their remote desktop. If smart cards are also used, end users must sign in three times because users must also log in when the smart card reader prompts them for a PIN.

The following solutions are known to work in a Horizon 7 for Linux Desktop environment:

 

 

Modify SSSD.conf

Since Horizon for Linux SSO leverages your AD user name and by default SSSD is configured for UPN. You need to modify the configuration file to allow username format and become case insensitive.

 

 

Restart HzLinux-01a

 

  1. Click the Power icon in the upper right hand corner
  2. Click the Power icon in the drop down

 

 

Conclusion


What you learned in this module:

You have learned that


 

Congratulations on completing Module 2

 

Please continue to the next module or scan the QR code to learn more.

Please continue to the next module or click a module below to review.

Lab Module List:

 

 

Module 3 - Install Horizon Agent (15 minutes)

Introduction


This Module contains the following lessons:


Install Horizon Agent on Linux



 

Horizon Linux Agent Install

In the following steps you will extract and install the Horizon agent.

Note that Single Sign-On is NOT a requirement in Horizon for Linux, but greatly enhances the users experience.

Single sign-on is supported on the following Linux versions:

To enable SSO in the Hands-On-Labs, please see the article Linux Desktop Master Image Preparation in this lab manual.

 

 

Power on the Linux VM [if needed]

 

 

Login to HzLinux-01a Desktop

 

Login to the Linux Desktop

  1. Enter hol as the username
  2. Click Next

 

 

Install the Horizon Agent

You must install Horizon Agent on a Linux virtual machine before you can deploy the machine as a remote desktop.

Beginning with Horizon 7.0.1 release, Horizon Agent for Linux uses vCenter managed virtual machines. The managed virtual machines provide the following enhancements.

Prerequisites

Before a Linux machine can be managed by Horizon 7, the machine must be able to communicate with Connection Server. You must configure networking on the Linux machine so that the Linux machine can ping the Connection Server instance using its FQDN (fully qualified domain name).

Open VMware Tools (OVT) are pre-installed on RHEL 7, CentOS 7, SLED 12, and SLES 12 machines.  If you are using an Ubuntu16.04 machine, install OVT on it.

 

 

Close the VMware Remote Console

 

Close the Remote Console by

  1. Click on the X

 

 

Conclusion

The Horizon Agent is now installed in you're Linux Desktop.

You are now ready to create a Horizon View Desktop Pool.

 

Conclusion


What you learned in this module:

You have learned that


 

Congratulations on completing Module 3

 

Please continue to the next module or scan the QR code to learn more.

Please continue to the next module or click a module below to review.

Lab Module List:

 

 

Module 4 - Create Linux Desktop Pool (15 minutes)

Introduction


This Module contains the following lessons:


Create Horizon Linux Desktop Pool



 

Horizon View Administrator

 

 

Create Desktops Pools

 

  1. Expand the Catalog
  2. Click on Desktop Pools
  3. Click Add...

 

 

Entitlements

 

On the Entitlements pop-up page

  1. Click Add

In the Find User or Group pop-up

  1. Enter lab
  2. Click Find
  3. Select All Lab [1-5] Users
  4. Click Ok

 

 

 

Validate Desktop Pool

 

Go back to the Horizon View Administrator

  1. Click on Desktop Pools
  2. Double-Click on Linux

 

 

Minimize Horizon View Administrator

 

  1. Click on the Minimize button on Google Chrome

 

Conclusion


What you learned in this module:

You have learned that


 

Congratulations on completing Module 4

 

Please continue to the next module or scan the QR code to learn more.

Please continue to the next module or click a module below to review.

Lab Module List:

 

 

Module 5 - Connecting to Horizon for Linux Desktop (30 minutes)

Introduction


This Module contains the following lessons:


Connect to Horizon for Linux



 

Connect using the Horizon Client

 

  1. Make sure you are on the Main Console
  2. Double-Click the VMware Horizon Client icon

 

 

Horizon for Linux Desktop Features

Horizon 7 features for Linux desktops.

The following  features are supported for Horizon 7 version 7.2 release

Note: Due to the Hands-On-Labs environment you will not be able to experience all of the features

 

 

Disconnect from Horizon for Linux

 

On the Horizon Client

  1. Click Options
  2. Choose Disconnect
  3. Click OK when prompted

 

 

Connect using Google Chrome

 

Conclusion


What you learned in this module:

You have learned that


 

Congratulations on completing Module 5

 

Please continue to the next module or scan the QR code to learn more.

Please continue to the next module or click a module below to review.

Lab Module List:

 

 

Module 6 - Horizon for Linux Concepts (15 minutes)

Introduction


This Module contains the following lessons:


Linux Desktop Deployment Concepts


It is important to understand the possibilities of creating a Linux pool in an automated fashion, at the moment Instant Clones and auto-provisioning built-in to the product.


 

Provisioning

 

You have the ability to create an automated pool in three different ways by using different tools. Depending on what you consider to use, the diagram above gives you indication on the level of complexity.  

Note: Horizon 7 has increased the functionality using PowerCLI commandlets and vCenter managed Linux machines.  This allows for a much easier bulk deployment and less scripting.

 

 

Steps to Prepare a Template

 

  1. Create your master Linux desktop template
  2. Create a Customization Specification file for Linux in the vSphere environment
  3. Clone the Virtual Machine
  4. Guest Customization including domain join commands with example scripts or use option RunOnce Script in/etc/vmware/viewagent-custom.conf, configured in the template virtual machine
  5. Install the Horizon Agent

 

 

PowerCLI - [Easy]

 

Power shell scripts are the easiest way to automate the pool cloning for Linux virtual machines.

Benefits

Note: PowerShell Scripts and CSV can be found in DeployLinuxAgents.zip

 

 

vRealize Orchestrator - [Medium]

 

To automate the pool creating with vRealize Orchestrator is a medium easy way to manage your Linux desktop pool creation.

Benefits

 

 

Kickstart / PXE Boot - [Hard]

 

To automate the pool creating with Kickstart / PXE Boot is a harder way to manage your Linux desktop pool creation as it requires more backend components like the PXE server and Kickstart or AutoYast knowledge.

Benefits

yum install system-config-kickstart
or
apt-get install system-config-kickstart

 

 

 

Preparing the Linux Virtual Machine

 

VMware Tools can be installed using apt-get install open-vm-tools which will stay up-to-date with Linux updates (apt-get update).

Name resolution and a working DNS is critical for successfully creating a Linux pool

 

 

Virtual Machine Display Settings

 

Note: It is important to understand the cause and effects of the number of displays and video RAM. Leaving this as the default (4MB) will result in low screen resolutions and the VM being unable to resize to the Horizon Client’s display resolution.

 

 

Installing the Horizon Agent

This topic is covered in Module 3 Install the Horizon Agent.

 

 

 

Create a Linux Desktop Pool

This topic is covered in Module 4 - Create Linux Desktop Pool

 

Linux 3D Desktop Graphics Concepts


This Module contains the following lessons:


 

Horizon 3D Overview

 

VMware vSphere servers with Horizon 7 hosted in enterprise data centers enable users to access virtual desktops running 3D applications from a wide range of client devices. This solution provides users with graphics performance roughly equivalent to high-end graphics workstations, using lower-cost clients or re-purposed devices.

For detailed information on, please see the VMware Horizon 3D Engineering Workloads Reference Architecture

http://bit.ly/3D-RA

 

 

Horizon for Linux 3D Graphics Support

Horizon for Linux supports the use of graphics accelerated desktops with NVIDIA Grid cards for the following:

Note:  Please review the Documentation for detailed information. http://bit.ly/3DforLinux

3D graphics is supported with the following combinations of Linux versions and graphics cards:

 

Conclusion


What you learned in this module:

You have learned that


 

Congratulations on completing Module 6

 

Please continue to the next module or scan the QR code to learn more.

Please continue to the next module or click a module below to review.

Lab Module List:

 

 

Lab Conclusion

What you learned


This concludes the module on Horizon for Linux

During this lab you learned why to use Linux Desktops, the features and Linux distributions supported in Horizon for Linux.

You walked though joining a Linux desktop to Active Directory using SSSD, installing the Horizon Agent and creating a manual desktop pool.

You also learned about advanced concepts around bulk deployment and 3D graphics with physical GPUs.


 

You've finished the Horizon for Linux HOL-1851-06-ADV Lab

 

To learn more about the Horizon for Linux please scan the QR Code or go to https://www.vmware.com/products/horizon/horizon-linux.html

 

 

 

End Your Lab

 

To end your lab click on the END button.  

 

Conclusion

Thank you for participating in the VMware Hands-on Labs. Be sure to visit http://hol.vmware.com/ to continue your lab experience online.

Lab SKU: HOL-1851-06-ADV

Version: 20180426-123142